• Researchers have consistently linked dimensions of parenting (e.g., support, control) to adolescent outcomes (e.g., internalizing and externalizing problems)
  • Parental psychological control of adolescents (i.e., manipulative, guilt-inducing, disrespectful parenting) has also been linked conceptually and empirically to adolescent SE. The prime implication of such intrusive parenting has been conceived as a violation of various aspects of the self-system of children and youth
  • Research has also consistently linked (lower) SE to various externalizing problems. For example, studies have shown that lower SE was associated with delinquency and externalizing problems in the United States
  • Less attention has been given to the relationship between SE and adolescent social competence, but two studies have found a positive association between the two variables
  • By demonstrating in a multivariate model of parenting dimensions and adolescent behaviors the strong negative influence of perceived parental psychological control on adolescents’ self-esteem, which in turn predicted higher levels of adolescent depression and antisocial behavior 1 year later
  • Based on the results of this study, practitioners should be helping youth recognize attempts by parents to be supportive and to engage in behavioral control, and they could help youth reframe parental psychological control as poor attempts to be supportive. In addition to exploring with youth their perceptions of parental behavior, practitioners could discuss with youth their levels of self-esteem and help them see the association between their conceptions of self and their behaviors

Reference: Hunter, S.B., Barber, B.K., Stolz, H.E. (2015). Extending Knowledge of Parents’ Role in Adolescent Development: The Mediating Effect of Self-esteem. Journal of Child & Family Studies.24: pp.2474–2484.Retrieved from: